For the first time in Ukraine the role of gender in the development of HIV/AIDS was studied, including the impact of gender stereotypes in social, economic and political spheres on the vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, as well as the influence of gender inequality on the effectiveness of response to the epidemic. Objectivity and reliability of the findings were provided by a combination of quantitative and qualitative sociological methods: a national representative survey of the adult population (2000 respondents), focus groups with women and men, interviews with experts.